Skip to main content

2023 American-Made Index: What About the Least American Cars?

AMI23 LeastAmerican FeaturedIMG jpg illustration by Paul Dolan and Erin Williamson

Of the 388 vehicles analyzed for’s 2023 American-Made Index to determine the vehicle that contributes most significantly to the U.S. economy, it was the Tesla Model Y that once again grabbed the No. 1 spot. But it takes a great deal of work to whittle down the list even to the 100 vehicles that qualified this year in part because three-quarters of the automotive population sold domestically has to be disqualified first.

Related: 2023 American-Made Index: Which Cars Are the Most American?

The AMI’s criteria for judgment include percentage of domestic parts content and country of origin both for engines and transmissions, but arguably its most important are U.S. manufacturing workforce and location of final assembly. Though the other factors are accounted for in scoring, without people on the ground in plants to build them, a car’s not making the list no matter the rest of its credentials.

To say there’s a single least American car is beyond the scope of our index; once a vehicle has been disqualified, we don’t invest further time in it. But according to a analysis, those imported vehicles still account for roughly 47% of all vehicles sold for 2023 — and if you’re unfamiliar with the global automotive supply chain, it might catch you out to see certain names on such a list.

Think of red-blooded American nameplates like the Dodge Challenger and Charger, which are produced across the border near Toronto. The Ford Maverick, a favorite in one of America’s most popular body styles, is made in Mexico. Another example is Lincoln’s lineup, which is almost entirely built in the U.S. — except for the Nautilus, a lone exception also assembled in Canada. And if you want a Buick built here at home, your only option for now is the Enclave; the Encore GX and Envision are produced in China and South Korea, respectively. It can sometimes get muddled within root nameplates, too: See also the Ford Bronco, produced entirely in the greater Detroit area, while its smaller Bronco Sport sibling is built in the same Hermosillo, Mexico, plant as the Maverick. And look a little closer at that Ram 1500 you’re cross-shopping with its previous-generation equivalent, the 1500 Classic: The former is produced entirely in Michigan, the latter produced partly in Mexico.

Beyond the traditional Detroit Three, other automakers vary their approach. Most of Honda’s offerings sold here are made in Alabama and Ohio, but the popular Civic and CR-V are made either here or abroad, depending on the variant, and the HR-V is entirely imported. The Genesis GV70 is built in South Korea, but its Electrified GV70 equivalent is assembled in Montgomery, Ala. And while most of BMW’s cars are expectedly imported, its entire SUV lineup is produced in Spartanburg, S.C. — except the X1 and X2.

Ultimately, how automakers handle the production of a car you’re in the market for can vary greatly. If buying domestic is important to you, check the window sticker closely to get a better sense of how your purchase may contribute to the economy.

Which Automaker Builds the Most U.S. Cars?

Among automakers whose vehicles qualified for this year’s index, Tesla continues to stand alone as the only company whose cars sold here are produced entirely in the U.S. via its California and Texas plants. Notable absences include Rivian, which we explain at greater length in our main story, and Lucid, whose sales still aren’t enough to meet our threshold. As for the rest, here’s how it shakes out among major automakers (including groups of affiliated or allied automakers) for U.S. light-duty sales:

Share of U.S. Light-Duty Sales From Domestic Assembly, 2023 Model Year

  • Tesla Inc. (Tesla): 100.0%
  • Ford Motor Co. (Ford, Lincoln): 77.5%
  • Honda Motor Co. Ltd. (Acura, Honda): 73.1%
  • Stellantis NV (Alfa Romeo, Chrysler, Dodge, Fiat, Jeep, Maserati, Ram): 70.1%
  • Subaru Corp. (Subaru): 58.5%
  • General Motors Co. (Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC): 54.0%
  • Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi Alliance (Infiniti, Mitsubishi, Nissan): 49.1%
  • Toyota Motor Corp. (Lexus, Toyota): 48.9%
  • Mercedes-Benz AG (Mercedes-Benz): 41.5%
  • Hyundai Motor Co. Ltd. (Genesis, Hyundai, Kia): 40.2%
  • BMW AG (BMW, Mini, Rolls-Royce): 36.3%
  • Volkswagen AG (Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, Porsche, Volkswagen): 21.1%
  • Mazda Motor Corp. (Mazda): 14.7%
  • Zhejiang Geely Holding Group Co. Ltd. (Lotus, Polestar, Volvo): 4.0%
  • Ferrari NV (Ferrari): 0.0%
  • McLaren Group Ltd. (McLaren): 0.0%
  • Tata Motors Ltd. (Jaguar, Defender, Discovery, Range Rover): 0.0%

Source: inventory analysis; light duty is defined by Federal Highway Administration Class I-II weight classifications.

More From

Related Video:’s Editorial department is your source for automotive news and reviews. In line with’s long-standing ethics policy, editors and reviewers don’t accept gifts or free trips from automakers. The Editorial department is independent of’s advertising, sales and sponsored content departments.

Photo of Patrick Masterson
Patrick Masterson is Chief Copy Editor at He joined the automotive industry in 2016 as a lifelong car enthusiast and has achieved the rare feat of applying his journalism and media arts degrees as a writer, fact-checker, proofreader and editor his entire professional career. He lives by an in-house version of the AP stylebook and knows where semicolons can go. Email Patrick Masterson

Featured stories